Threat to international peace and security after codification of the UN charter was mainly due to the activities and approaches of the governments; hence according to the paragraph 4 of the Article 2 of the UN Charter, only states have to observe the prohibition of threat or use of force.
Critical role of governments in threat to international and regional peace and security continued during the Cold War but now is more than two decades that role and impact of the nongovernmental actors (such as insurgent and terrorist groups) in threat to international and regional peace and security has preceded the role of governmental activities. The latest report of the Heidelberg Institute in 2014 illustrates that the number of violence and civil wars is far more than intergovernmental wars and conflicts. While only 77 out of 414 cases concern tensions and conflicts between states, the others 337cases regard internal conflicts. So more than three-fourth of global and regional crises and threats either result from the performance of the nongovernmental groups or are the consequence of tensions between national governments and nongovernmental actors.
Therefore, the Iranian Association for the United Nations Studies dedicated the conference of inauguration of west branch of the association, which had been hosted by the Islamic Azad University, to this issue. The conference was started at 8:30 am with reading the Quran and national anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
It should be noted that attention to this conference was as remarkable as some audients had to follow the conference standing, so the presenters repeatedly appreciated the competent hosting and attendance of these audience.