The Iranian Association for the United Nations Studies in order to accomplish the goals and tasks of its statute and reverence the originality of ethic and science, held the second meeting of the series of sessions on commemoration of deceased professor Hooshang Moghtader with title of "Diplomacy as social capital in international organizations" in association with the House Of Humanities Scholars.

At the beginning of this meeting, Dr. Nasrin Mosaffa (Chairwoman), meanwhile thank the presence of enthusiasts, especially the experienced professor and diplomats of the country, presented some explanations about the aims of the Association concern the appreciation of leaders, specially former colleague of the Association (Professors Soor Esrafil, Masood Tarem Sery and Hooshang Moghtader).

Then, she described the moral and academic characteristics of Dr Hooshang  Moghtader: “All of his students, remember him because of his sincerity, humility and tenderness and nowadays his books are still valid in analysis of the United Nation’s operation.” She illustrated about the relationship between professor and the Iranian Association for UN Studies: "In 1998 and early 1378 we met the professor and told him we want to establish the Association and he gave his documents happily; Of course he has a different love to his student.”

Dr. Mosaffa at the end of her speech hoped that with great respect and honor to the elders, more academic works could be done. She also thanked all participants and more specifically, wife of Professor Hooshang Moghtader and asked Prof. Ghasem Eftekhari (professor at University of Tehran) to have a speech at this meeting as an old friend of Dr. Moghtader

Dr. Ghasem Eftekhari started his speech saying that: “I tell a few words in memory of Dr. Moghtader; in 1970 when I entered University of Tehran I met two peoples who were suitable to make a friendship with: Dr. Hamid Enaiat and Dr. Hooshang Moghtader. Perhaps it was due to the fact that both of them were educated in London. We were mate friend and also had a family relationship. Dr. Moghtader was really accurate and certainly considered even minor questions. Everyone likes him in the Faculty and he was a lovely person generally. We got to know each other many years before the revolution in Iran. We both had a research opportunity in Switzerland and Dr. Moghtader asked me to change our turns that he goes there primarily instead of me and I accepted. So I became his warrantor and exchange his salary to the Switzerland’s currency and sent to him. A morning he called me and told that he is back in Iran; He dropped his research opportunity and came back to Iran to know what was happening in his homeland. He was really susceptible about his country; in fact, he was a real patriot. He participated in the meetings and wanted to do something for his country. However, there were some problems which made him deeply disappointed and he got depressed; soon he left this world.

Dr. Eftekhari expressed short but concise and relevant content about the subject of meeting on "Diplomacy as social capital in international organizations". He mentioned:

“We all know that in the 18th century, England was the first country which developed from agriculture to industrial period. These changes gave him incomputable power and glory. England’s neighbor found the difference between themselves and England and it is a point where the concepts of development and non-development arose. Ultimately the other European countries demanded to develope such as England and the concept of development went beyond the borders of Europe. For instance, states such as our country also tried to get developed but found that the infrastructure of development such as wealth, literacy, etc., did not exist. S

The first step for development was colonialism (pay attention that colonialism was not bad concept from the beginning); So developed countries decided to support the non-developed countries and facilitate their paths towards improvements. Soon they realized that colonization is not the proper way to progress. Well, we all know that investors were after the capital increase, not the development of people; Gradually colonial turned to the exploitation.

Later countries got disappointed and desired to end this colonialism, so nationalism arose; that was a new movement which they wanted to overcome this backwardness through it. Soon, nationalists (national champions) appeared. But these champions could not do anything too and they lost their popularity because they could not make any progress. So not only any achievement gained but also repression was started.

So, after colonialism, we had exploitation, then nationalism and then the socialism appears; it did not achieve any results too. Meanwhile, others found the other way that was religion. To sum it up, none of these ways lead to the development. In this time conundrum was arose for scientists that this general approach on the basis of government’s monster do not provide any solution. So, they should search within the community to know what happens there that no progress has been made. It has clarified that progress is the consequence of people’s practice. Thus, this performance should be studied to know which acts and matters can make improvement.

The acts of people divide to these two sorts:

  1. Personal act: acts which do not need the presence of others. (human phenomenon)
  2. And actions which a person cannot do it alone. (collective phenomenon)


So we have individual and collective acts. Humanities such as literature, writing, mathematics, theology, etc., have no connections with development. Social Sciences clear some issues; If people do not have any interaction in community social phenomenon does not created. So people need to have communication and the precondition of communication is trust. So we need trust before communication. This would make a reliable societal system; it means a system which works properly.


The adherent to the obligations would be rewarded and opponents would be punished. So a concept was formed in the name of social capital. If we grow Literate workforce, we will have literate social but development cannot be found. So what is important is the trust that people create between themselves. And reliable systems and networks should exist, otherwise literate and education is not enough. Development means social development and not skyscrapers. As long as there the social systems have not been created, the mere capital is not enough and there would be no progress. The same issue governs at international level. As trust can make progress within a country, it also can make confidence and progres in international level.


Existing theories are not sufficient. The issue of nuclear energy is the lack of trust. Distrust is not only in words, but the trust is needed in practice too. They tell us to take this step… trust means you can risk. How you can see progress in Dubai (United Arabic Emirates)? Consider the causes of mustiness in some countries, you see no development in their society. So if we want the progress in our country we have not to pursue the same way. So, it should be considered that wealth is not a source of progress. Factors that make the trust must be provided to ensure progress. At the international level, previous theories do not solve the problems anymore. Today sixty allies’ countries cannot do anything against arrogant group (such as ISIS). These groups have an endless reserve of energy in the world. Millions of young educated, unemployed and adventurous is the proper potential for them. So these groups have great human resources and pay them well.


Theories of international relations need more studies on social capital. International theories are obsolete and old-fashioned. They should go into the societies and make trust between the people through social mechanism.


Offer a new theory of international relations based on confidence-building may solve many issues in global and regional level. It should be studied whether this could be raised as a new theory of international relations and international organizations as well as at the states level? At the first step, the legends of imperialism and colonialism, etc. should be eliminated from societies. Awareness should be spread within a society.

At the end of the meeting, audience made some questions and answer within the framework of the Dr. Bakhtiari’s speech and Dr. Mosaffa thanked the participants again and wish health and success for all.